A GUIDE TO THE USE OF SHEPARD'S CITATORS
Leah Sandwell-Weiss, Reference Librarian
Shepard's citators serve three purposes: they provide parallel citations, expand research, and verify and validate research results.
All Shepard's follow a similar format. The following illustrates a Federal Reporter entry from Shepard's Federal Citations:
PARALLEL AND VERIFICATION INFORMATION:
the cited authority = Vol. 372;--611--; the legal authority that you are looking up in Shepard's Federal Citations is located in volume 372 of the Federal Reporter 2d at page 611.
same case = s 244FS685; the same case, but at the district court level.
citing authorities = Later opinions from the Fifth Circuit that cited the cited authority are: f 405F2d1951 and d 691F2d51171
The "f" tells you that the citing authority followed the cited authority. The "d" tells you that the citing authority distinguished its facts and holding from that in the cited authority. Whenever you don't know the meaning of the abbreviation, look inside the front cover or in the beginning pages of the citator. The "History and Treatment Abbreviations" table gives you the meaning of the lower case letters (e.g.: s, f, d) that precede the citing authority. The "Reporter Abbreviations" table gives you the meaning of the abbreviations for the reporters (e.g.: ADC--Appeal Cases, District of Columbia Reports.)
f 405F2d1951 = A superscripted number within a citing authority, tells you that the citing authority addresses the same point of law as in the headnote of the cited authority, here headnote number 1.
STEPS IN SHEPARDIZING A CASE:
NOTE: Specific directions for each Shepard's Citators are in the front of each volume.
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